“Soft despotism is a term coined by Alexis de Tocqueville describing the state into which a country overrun by "a network of small complicated rules" might degrade. Soft despotism is different from despotism (also called 'hard despotism') in the sense that it is not obvious to the people."

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

Is Fusion Power a Reality?

Fusion power: is it getting any closer?

For decades, scientists have been predicting that, one day, the same process that powers the sun will give us virtually unlimited cheap, clean electricity. Are they wrong?

A star is born. And, less than a second later, it dies. On a drab science park just outside the Oxfordshire village of Culham, some of the world's leading physicists stare at a monitor to review a video of their wondrous, yet fleeting, creation.

"Not too bad. That was quite a clean one," observes starmaker-in-chief Professor Steve Cowley. Just a few metres away from his control room, a "mini star" not much larger than a family car has just burned, momentarily bright, at temperatures approaching 23 million degrees centigrade inside a 70-tonne steel vessel.

Cowley sips his coffee. "OK, when do we go again?"

Last year, when asked to name the most pressing scientific challenge facing humanity, Professors Stephen Hawking and Brian Cox both gave the same answer: producing electricity from fusion energy. The prize, they said, is enormous: a near-limitless, pollution-free, cheap source of energy that would power human development for many centuries to come. Cox is so passionate about the urgent need for fusion power that he stated that it should be scientists such as Cowley who are revered in our culture – not footballers or pop stars – because they are "literally going to save the world". It is a "moral duty" to commercialise this technology as fast as possible, he said. Without it, our species will be in "very deep trouble indeed" by the end of this century.

If only it were that simple. Fusion energy – in essence, recreating and harnessing here on earth the process that powers the sun – has been the goal of physicists around the world for more than half a century. And yet it is perpetually described as "30 years away". No matter how much research is done and money is spent attempting to commercialise this "saviour" technology, it always appears to be stuck at least a generation away.

Cowley hears and feels these frustrations every day. As the director of the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, he has spent his working life trying to shorten this exasperating delay. Fusion energy is already a scientific challenge arguably more arduous than any other we face, but recent events have only piled on further pressure: international climate-change negotiations have stalled; targets to ramp up renewable energy production seem hopelessly unrealistic; and the Fukushima disaster has cast a large shadow over the future of fusion's nuclear cousin, fission energy, with both Germany and Italy stating that, owing to safety concerns, they now intend to turn their back on a source of energy which has been providing electricity since the 1950s.

But today Cowley seems upbeat, chipper even. After an 18-month shutdown to retile the interior of the largest of the centre's two "tokamaks" – ring doughnut-shaped chambers where the fusion reaction takes place – he is bullish about the progress being made by the 1,000 scientists and engineers based at Culham.

"By 2014-15, we will be setting new records here. We hope to reach break-even point in five years. That will be a huge psychological moment."

Cowley is referring to the moment of parity when the amount of energy they extract from a tokamak equals the amount of energy they put into it. At present, the best-ever "shot" – as the scientists refer to each fusion reaction attempt – came in 1997 when, for just two seconds, the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak at Culham achieved 16MW of fusion power from an input of 25MW. For fusion to be commercially viable, however, it will need to provide a near-constant tenfold power gain.

So, what are the barriers preventing this great leap forward?

"We could produce net electricity right now, but the costs would be huge," says Cowley. "The barrier is finding a material than can withstand the neutron bombardment inside the tokamak. We could also just say damn to the cost of the electricity required to demonstrate this. But we don't want to do something that cannot be shown to be commercially viable. What's the point?"

At the heart of a star, fusion occurs when hydrogen atoms fuse together under extreme heat and pressure to create a denser helium atom releasing, in the process, colossal amounts of energy. But on Earth, scientists have to try and replicate a star's intense gravitational pressure with an artificial magnetic field that requires huge amounts of electricity to create – so much that the National Grid must tell Culham when it is OK for them to run a shot. (Namely, not in the middle of Coronation Street or a big football match.)

The fusion reaction occurs when the fuel (two types, or isotopes, of hydrogen known as deuterium and tritium) combines to form a super-hot plasma which produces, alongside the helium, neutrons which have a huge amount of kinetic energy. The goal of plasma physicists such as Cowell is to harness the release of these neutrons and use their abundant energy to drive conventional turbines to generate electricity. The JET tokamak has been shut down for the past 18 months while the interior has been stripped of its 4,500 carbon tiles and replaced with new tiles made from beryllium and tungsten. The hope is that these new tiles will be far more "neutron resilient", allowing for shots to be conducted for longer periods and at much higher temperatures.

Over lunch at the staff canteen, Francesco Romanelli, the Italian director of the European Fusion Development Agreement, the European agency that funds JET, explains why the new tiles are so crucial: "We now understand how a plasma works. We have demonstrated with JET that we can contain the reactants; we reach temperatures 20 times hotter than the sun's core and we produce an intense magnetic field, 1,000 times that of Earth's normal magnetic field. But the main problem we face is plasma turbulence. To compensate for this loss, we have to add more heat and energy. So we are always looking for materials that can withstand these extraordinary conditions inside the tokamak."

Last year, bulldozers began clearing land 60km north-east of Marseille in southern France. By 2019, it is hoped that the world's largest and most advanced experimental tokamak will be switched on. The €15bn International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being funded by an unprecedented international coalition, including the EU, the US, China, India, South Korea and Russia. Everything learned at Culham will be fed into improving the design and performance of ITER which, it is hoped, will demonstrate the commercial viability of fusion by producing a tenfold power gain of 500MW during shots lasting up to an hour.

But ITER's projected costs are already rocketing, and politicians across Europe have expressed concern, demanding that budgets be capped. Fusion energy also has its environmental detractors. When the ITER project was announced in 2005, Greenpeace said it "deplored" the project, arguing that the money could be better spent building offshore wind turbines. "Advocates of fusion research predict that the first commercial fusion electricity might be delivered in 50-80 years from now," said Jan Vande Putte, Greenpeace International's nuclear campaigner. "But most likely, it will lead to a dead end, as the technical barriers to be overcome are enormous." Meanwhile, there is criticism from some plasma physicists that the design of ITER is wrong and alternative designs might produce better results for much less money.

Romanelli rejects this analysis. We simply must make this investment, he says: "The prize on offer is too tantalising to ignore. Fusion doesn't produce greenhouse gases, it is intrinsically safe and it leaves no burden on future generations. The primary reaction does not produce nuclear material, only helium. There's a limited problem in that you produce neutrons, but this only makes the reactor chamber itself radioactive. Within 100 years, you could recycle the chamber so there's no need for geological-timescale storage as there is with the waste from fission energy. And the fuel is virtually unlimited. All you need is lithium and hydrogen. Sea water alone could fuel current human consumption levels for 30 million years."

Another major positive promised by fusion, says Romanelli, is that reactors would be so safe that they could be located amid urban centres where the power is most needed. "A tsunami, earthquake or bomb could hit a fusion reactor and the problems caused would only ever be structural. With fission, you have to release the energy if there's a problem, whereas fusion shuts down instantly if disrupted."

If fusion offers such glorious bounty, it prompts the question – given, say, our concerns over climate change and the global political instability caused by the pursuit of oil – why the world isn't concentrating much harder on delivering it as fast as possible. Yes, €15bn is a lot of money to be spending building ITER. But, by comparison, the global cosmetics and perfume industry is worth some $170bn a year. And, in 2010, the US's military budget was $663bn. If the motivation was there, the global community could find the money to fund 10 rival fusion projects to fast-track the process of finding the optimum design. So, why haven't we seen a Manhattan Project-style push for fusion such as we did during the second world war when it was deemed by the allied forces that they must beat the Nazis in the race to build the first atomic bomb?

"People – and particularly politicians – still remember fission's early claims that it would produce electricity that was 'too cheap to meter'," says Cowley. For most people, fusion is the realm of science fiction and it is hard to convince them that it should be a strategic priority, he says. "We scientists have to be honest, too: we thought it would be easy to crack fusion. But there's no other comparable challenge. There is no model for this technology. The first flying devices looked like birds because those early inventors looked to nature for solutions. But we don't have a model in nature to look to. The sun is not a good model for fusion here on earth. We're having to start from the very beginning."

Cowley says a Manhattan Project for fusion would, of course, greatly speed up its delivery. "ITER will cost around €15bn, but that is not expensive when you consider the prize. At present, all we can hope for is, if oil prices are still high in 2015 and we pull off a big shot demonstrating parity of power, this gets us the international attention – and therefore the funding – we need to really push on. JET was first funded and built during the 1970s due to the oil crisis. That is not a coincidence: there has always been a direct correlation between investment in fusion and the price of oil. Interestingly, though, China is now putting a lot of money into fusion."

This raises another big question: who will stand to benefit financially from its commercialisation? "The global energy market is worth $5-6 trillion a year: somebody will make a lot of money out of this," says Cowley, who predicts that once ITER provides a demonstration model for a fusion reactor all the major countries involved will then attempt to build their own version. "We handed our advantage away with fission. We really don't want to make the same mistake again." One area where the UK already has an edge, says Cowley, is making the very specialised steels required for next-generation tokomaks.

It's hard not to look at the potential of fusion and scream: "We need this right now!" But Cowley says we still face a 30-year wait for the magic day when we flick a switch and electricity generated from fusion flows from the socket. "After ITER, we will then have to build a demonstration plant. We hope to have that built by 2040. This is why there needs to be, in my mind, a 10-fold increase in fission power by 2050. We still need fission because it is a bridging technology until fusion becomes commercial. By 2100, fusion could be producing 20-25% of all our energy." (Romanelli's outlook is a little more optimistic: he believes fusion will be providing 50% of the world's energy by 2100.)

What Cowley is admitting, though, is that as long as fusion research remains underfunded (a term he doesn't utter, but the implication is there) then it will never save humanity from climate change, oil wars and the poverty and underdevelopment caused by ever-higher energy costs. As if to prove his point, he admits that on occasion he has even turned to eBay to buy spare parts for the smaller UK-owned tokamak at Colham which is known as Mast (Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak).

But such things do not deter him from pushing forward as best he can, he stresses. He is first and foremost a plasma physicist.

"Saving the planet is a nice thing to do," he laughs. "Doing something that no one else has ever done is attractive, too. But, ultimately, this is fascinating. I work at the best fusion laboratory in the world, where we conduct day-to-day physics with an incredibly high level of intellectual activity. Every night on the train home I prefer to do a calculation rather than a sudoku. I try to work out things such as how a 200-million-degree-celsius plasma behaves in a magnetic field. Such things are critically important for the future of our world, but they're bloody good fun, too."


  1. I doubt they will be successful in J├╝lich. Simply not enough diversity to make it happen. They need a more broad spectrum of color in their management. Hopefully , they can put a Nobel Laureate with vast administrative and community organization skills on their board in eighteen months. He will fix it.


  2. ... we don't want to do something that cannot be shown to be commercially viable. What's the point?"

    The fusion reactor is already available, without building a star, here on the Earth.

    It's called the Sun.
    We can harness and use it, without replicating it, here on Earth.

  3. Black hole catalyed fusion. Use CERN to make some bite-sized black holes, and the gravity of the black holes will draw the tritium-deuterium mix together close enough for quantum tunneling to occur, and...fusion. Downside? A terrorist could cut the wires to the electromagnet that keeps the charged black hole in place, and then it will eat the whole infidel planet. Allahu oinkbar!

  4. desert rat said...
    Only a true idiot would claim moral superiority, based upon the economics of thievery and the politics of Jim Crow.

    In fact, the idiots then provide numerous links providing proofs of the moral equivalency.

    All that positive GDP data, and the Israelis still kill Jewish souls, because their people cannot afford to raise the children.

    As over 200,000 Israeli take to the streets in protest of their GDP successes not "trickling down".

    Killing their own children, due to the costs of their government.

    King Herod lives!

    The resident Nazi spoke....

    And he still holds a position as a "bartender" on the roll...

    How shameful....

  5. ...from the very liberal John Stossel...

    "...Most people say that selling body parts is wrong.

    "It also seems wrong to have people dying because they can't get a kidney," Boaz said.

    Some 400,000 Americans are on a waiting list now for a new kidney, and they are not allowed to pay for one.

    "We sell hair. We sell sperm. We sell eggs these days." Boaz added.

    Gillespie added, "The best way to grow the supply and allow more people to live is to allow the market to price those organs."

    Almost Everything We're Taught Is Wrong

    As an afterthought, folks here have made a big production of the procurement of organs for profit (most of the agitation has been agitprop). I haven't heard a word of criticism about the institutions and physicians who make fortunes replacing defective organs (not that I'm against that - indeed any regulating mechanism outside government is preferred). One wonders if the vitriol would commence were folks to discover that some of the institutions and physicians were Jewish? Nah! No way! :-)

    As an afterthought's afterthought: We sell babies daily in the US. Now, if that is not the apex of profiteering, nothing is.

  6. Our shooter was an assistant psychology professor who just got the employment axe. Took it out on his 22 year old student girlfriend. Filled her with holes from a .45 to such an extent that her room mate, who witnessed the whole thing, still wasn't able to make a statement hours later. Fleeing in a big nice car, he ended up checked into the Best Western where the people at the desk notified the cops, who negotiated with him for about 4 hours before tuning to the tear gas, at which point he shot himself.

    An Argentinian, he seems to have had issues previously, and the students are saying he was somehow huts, which seems evident enough.

    The University may have some liability over the issue of the romantical relationship with the 22 year old student, a big no-no.

    We had another case where a Chinese (from China) graduate student caught his girl cheating on him, with his room mate I think, or so he thought, went to Wal-Mart, bought a big Buck knife, and cut her up into pieces. Then, in an act of genius, a couple of days later, he returned the Buck knife to Wal-Mart to get his money back and the store management called the cops about the knife, who found a little blood where the blade goes into the handle. DNA testing matched to the victim.

    In this case the prosecutors and his attorney worked a deal to return him the China, where he is no doubt either dead or working the rest of his life on some chain gang or other.

    Saved us the cost of the trial and the bed and breakfasts forever.

    Hell of a bad way to start off the semester, here.

    rat has no business on the star board, at least without WiO as a counterweight.

    Sticks out like a sore thumb.

    My engineer has a lock on the kaolin (sp) clay deposit out by Boville, which got washed in here when Lake Missoula broke its chains on several occassions. Can handle super heat in industrial ovens. Too much to hope probably that it could be used to handle those released particles in a fusion reaction.

    I bet they get the job done, someday, someway.

    Is it a good thing we have an unlimited supply of energy?

    I'm not so certain of that, myself.


  7. Obumble eases down another notch to 38% approval.

    Tears of joy to the eyes. Will he be able to make the 20's?

    Rufus said once he might go as low as 12-13%.

    heh, and Rufus is considering voting for de mon.

    Figure that one out.


  8. The headlines of the day are examples of spirit striving to overcome itself and failing.


    Which reminds me to walk downtown and get the morning papers and read all about this latest incident.


  9. DR said...
    All that positive GDP data, and the Israelis still kill Jewish souls, because their people cannot afford to raise the children.

    Once again, DR is wrong. Abortion is not driven by fear of poverty. The majority of recipients of the procedure in the US, for instance, are careless middle class types.

    And most importantly, DR, we Jews do not believe a soul can be killed. Souls are immortal in our view of reality. Granted some of your co-religionists et al hold the view of the death of souls, but you are clearly conflating when you name Judaism among the pack.

    On the matter of "James the Just", you need to do some homework. Among innumerable others, no less a Christian light than Luther, cursed the Book of James and its place in the Christian canon. Reason? James was a "Judaizer", i.e. James was an orthodox Jew of the sect of the young rabbi, Joshua. James rejected the dogma of the Roman Church and the Reformers that the just shall live by faith. To loosely quote, "Show me your faith without works and I will show you my faith by my works. Faith without works is dead!"

  10. Pic in the paper confirms the cops here are very accurate with their tear gas launcher. Dead center on the second story of the building.

    Catholics put an emphasis on works. The Lutheran position nowadays is that faith, if genuine, will issue in works. The two sides have, I believe, worked this discussion out between themselves, and issued some kind of reconciling statement.

    Granted that a human spirit once created cannot come not to be, it does seem a lame excuse for an abortion.


  11. The resident Nazi spoke....

    And he still holds a position as a "bartender" on the roll...

    I thought that meant something to WiO and had my name taken off the roll, and she still calls me a Nazi. So there's no upside to resigning. All stick, no carrot.

  12. Where has this idea come from that a professor can't have a relationship with a 22 year old student?

    Fully understanding the concerns about the power relationship, still the girl is 22 years old, and the age of consent here is 18, up from the previous 16. She chose the wrong professor obviously, but, on the other hand, none other than Joe Campbell had a relationship with one of his students, who turned out to be his life long mate, an artist of dance in her own right.

    There is no perfect answer to a lot of things.


  13. I did notice your action in that regard Miss T, and think you did the right thing.


  14. On the matter of "James the Just", you need to do some homework. Among innumerable others, no less a Christian light than Luther, cursed the Book of James and its place in the Christian canon. Reason? James was a "Judaizer"...

    Sure, a Judaizer, that's why he released the Gentiles from the Law of Moses.

    Acts 15:

    [13] And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me:

    [14] Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name.

    [15] And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written,

    [16] After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up:

    [17] That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things.

    [18] Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the

    [19] Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God

  15. Libya's Next Rulers May Be Worse

    Be careful what you hope for, you might just get it, mom used to say.


  16. Crack in the Washington Monument, Obumble attributes it to Bushs's "Fault."

  17. Are we even totally certain who and what James the Just really was?

    A lot in St. Paul isn't St. Paul, but some dude trying to subvert the subverter to get back to the status quo ante.

    The stuff about women keeping their mouths shut tight, for instance, whereas it seems St. Paul empowered women, much like his Lord. If his statements about women in positions of influence in the early churches are an indication.


  18. :)
    Bush left fault lines all over D.C., and the rest of the country too.


  19. If only the Yellaston caldera would blow --

    August 24, 2011
    Krugman bemoans lost economic boost from too mild earthquake
    Rick Moran

    Eventually, Google is going to ruin us all.

    Here's a blurb from the Nobel Prize winning economist's Google page yesterday:

    "People on twitter might be joking, but in all seriousness, we would see a bigger boost in spending and hence economic growth if the earthquake had done more damage.

    Yeah, just think of all the life insurance payouts to the families of those dead victims if the quake had been really serious. That's a Keyenesian way to stimulate the economy if I ever heard one.

    Allah wonders if Krugman is being serious:

    Is it real or just a goof? Kevin Williamson isn't sure and neither am I, but given that this is the same guy who fantasized recently about the Keynesian awesomeness of an alien invasion, it's at least a toss-up. All day long I've felt relieved that the quake caused only very minor damage, but now suddenly I'm bummed that the Brooklyn Bridge didn't fall into the river. Maybe we can get DHS or the NYPD to blow it up? That's a few thousand jobs right there.

    Maybe Paulie needs to get out more.


  20. Are we even totally certain who and what James the Just really was?

    Ya'akov, older brother of Yeshua, head of the household when their father Yosef died. Tried to turn Yeshua's healing abilities into a family business, but Yeshua wouldn't hear of it, his vision of the Banquet of God was much bigger than that. Mother Miriam was in his care after Yeshua disappeared. Became bishop of the Church in Jerusalem, and so was the first real "pope". Convened the first Christian council, where the issue was whether Gentile converts to the Way must also be converted to Judaism. Admired by traditional Jews as well as Jewish adherents of the Way for his fair judgments. Martyred in Jerusalem when he was told to deliver a speech turning the people away from their belief in Yeshua crucified and risen again, but instead used it as an opportunity to preach the gospel. John Boanerges then took his mother into his keeping.

  21. T,

    I won't argue the point. Instead, I will simply direct you to the voices of the early Church Fathers, the view of the Roman Church (not much different than Luther's - Luther called the Book of James a book of straw [subtly hinting at its eventual burning by the truly pious, such as yourself]. The problem, T, is that much was added, as both the Roman Church and the Reformers knew. Obviously, you do not.

  22. Ya'akov, older brother of Yeshua

    But, but, I thought Mary was a virgin???


  23. The Chief Rabbinate of Israel claims the murder of Jewish souls, almost 500,000 of them in just this century, has been perpetrated by the Israelis.

    The main cause cited, the economics of child rearing.

    500,000 Jewish souls, murdered in Israel, by Israelis, in the 21st century.

    Little reason for the Israeli to fear Muslims, when they are murdering their own.

    At the rate of 50,000 a year.

  24. In local retro news:

    Pullman Pot Gardens Put On Hold

    Local pot heads trying to evade the law by growing 'medical marijuana' claiming, for instance, that it works miracles for, say, gout.


  25. As to the sale of stolen body parts, only a miscreant would attempt to supply a moral justification of that.

  26. James the Just, he was killed by the Mob, outside the Temple.

    There was Mob violence well before there was a London.

    Well before "multiculturalism" became an issue.

    Unless one wants to deny the truth of what was written, back in the day.

  27. How man angels can sit on the head of a pin?

    Hosw about being concerned about the here and now?

    The government will run another $1.3 trillion deficit in fiscal year 2011, Congress’s chief scorekeeper said Wednesday — easily eclipsing the $917 billion in savings over the next decade lawmakers scratched out earlier this month in their debt-reduction deal and underscoring the deep challenge they face going forward.

    And over the next decade, the Congressional Budget Office said, the federal government will rack up nearly $6 trillion in new deficits — far outstripping the $1.5 trillion in future savings the new deficit super committee is charged with recommending to Congress.

    CBO analysts said in fiscal year 2011, which ends Sept. 30, the deficit will equal 8.5 percent of the U.S. economy as measured by gross domestic product. In dollar terms, it is the third largest shortfall in history.

    In 2010 the government ran a deficit of $1.3 trillion, down slightly from 2009’s record $1.4 trillion deficit. Revenues were $2.2 trillion and spending, measured by outlays, was $3.5 trillion.

  28. Who denies James the Just was murdered by the Mob?

  29. But, but, I thought Mary was a virgin???

    This is reality, Bob.

    The Hebrew has Isaiah 14:7 call out a "young woman"...when they translated it to Greek in Alexandria, they used parthenos (virgin). Simple foul up.

  30. The Federals will pay that $1.3 trillion in interest payments, Deuce.

    The operations and revenues of the Federals, in rough balance.

    As the economist quoted a few weeks ago opined, we need to increase the velocity of money. Need to increase the money supply.

    The Federals could mint that $1.3 trillion and pay the interest with it.

    No cuts in services, no raising taxes.

  31. This comment has been removed by the author.

  32. Take the Federals out of the money market, as a borrower.

    The corporations would begin to commit the trillions those institutions are holding.
    Said to be in the $3 trillion range.

    Fear of inflation creating a stimulus for the corporate leaders to take action and commit their cash to fruitful endeavors.

    No longer being able to "park" that money in the safe haven of Treasuries.

  33. I have it on good authority though I can't remember where that there never was any reference to how many angels can dance on the head of a pin in old scholasticism.

    Dare: Find such a discussion in the old tradition.

    It is a modern attempt to slander an old tradition.

    What this country needs is more and bigger disasters to get back 'on track.'


  34. Carl Jung (we always have to add - 'the great Swiss psychiatrist') thought that the image of the Trinity was lacking another member to make it whole. Thus the Catholic attempt, subconsciously, to make divine our ever mother Mary, as four is a symbol of wholeness in Jung and three is not.


    In Hemingway three is a number of evil, usually.

    Recall how the planes came in threes, and threes of threes, when the fascists attacked, 'they came in threes like mechanized death. FWTBT

    And here I thought two was the number of the devil.

    Our old foe - duality, etc.


  35. anon said...

    Ya'akov, older brother of Yeshua

    As I was saying earlier, much was added. Suffice to say, much was removed.

  36. DR said ...
    The main cause cited, the economics of child rearing.

    Where is the ever present DR link :-)

  37. Yes, only a miscreat would. But since neither John Stossel nor I were, that makes the miscreant you for attempting a blatant mischaracterization of the facts...Liar

    You still cannot tell me what happened to the one rabbi involved in organ harvesting, can you?

  38. T,

    Simple foul up.

    Wed Aug 24, 10:02:00 AM EDT

    That would suggest greater care in quoting, then, wouldn't it? Unless, you are just attempting to rack up points in your own mind.

  39. Teresita said...
    The resident Nazi spoke....

    And he still holds a position as a "bartender" on the roll...

    I thought that meant something to WiO and had my name taken off the roll, and she still calls me a Nazi. So there's no upside to resigning. All stick, no carrot.

    Actually again you lie... I have NEVER advocated your name to be taken off the blog roll, you have railed about it several times yourself.

    However you are an anti-semite. Please show me any post that I specifically call you a nazi.

    I have called you a man.

    I have called you a liar.

    i have called you all sorts of things, as you of me...

    Now you continue to smear and call me a "she"...

    OK, fair is fair...

    I still doubt you are a real woman.


  40. Ms T:

    Sure, a Judaizer, that's why he released the Gentiles from the Law of Moses.

    excuse me you nitwit....

    "gentiles" were NEVER under the Mosaic covenant.

    You are a stupid twit...

  41. "gentiles" were NEVER under the Mosaic covenant.

    James agreed. That's why he ruled that Gentiles did NOT have to covert to Judaism concurrently with conversion to Christianity. Please keep up.

    However you are an anti-semite. Please show me any post that I specifically call you a nazi.


    I called Ms T a crossdresser, and that would imply she is a he...

    As for the Ms T/ Selah/Teresita/SunSue? )and who knows what new other names can be attributed to her??)

    As for the actual israel hating person that I was referring?

    I still stand by my words...

    those that seek to destroy Israel and Judaism?

    They Are "nazis"...

    Sun Apr 17, 12:07:00 PM EDT