State-Initiated Constitutional Amendment Process Has Long History -Article V of the Constitution authorizes states to initiate amendments with a convention.
February 28, 2011
In the face of growing federal power and mounting deficits, some want states to call for a convention for proposing amendments to the U.S. Constitution that would rein in the federal government. Article V of the Constitution authorizes states to initiate amendments with a convention. Critics claim no one really knows how the process works and calling a convention would open the door to mischief by Congress, the courts and convention delegates. But states frequently applied for an amendments convention between 1789 and 1913. A study of that history reveals much about how states can -- and cannot -- use the Article V process today, says Robert G. Natelson, a senior fellow at the Goldwater Institute.
Natelson's research confirms that:
- For the most part, Americans stayed close to the original understanding of Article V and the important ground rules governing the process.
- Historically, there has been a sharp distinction between an Article V convention and a general constitutional convention.
- Likewise, a majority of Article V applications were limited to particular subjects.
- Most people agreed the amendments convention would be a creature of the state legislatures that controlled the convention agenda, while convention delegates would have discretion over an amendment's actual language.
Although the state-initiated Article V process has not yet led directly to adoption of a constitutional amendment, its history from 1789 until 1913 shows a remarkable continuity in its use and a consensus on the process involved, says Natelson.
Source: Robert G. Natelson, "Learning from Experience: How the States Used Article V Applications in America's First Century," Goldwater Institute, November 3, 2010.